The system characteristics show the pressure loss in the system as a function of the flow.
The system characteristics show the pressure lost in the system as a function of the flow. The starting point of the characteristics depends on the type of system.
a. In a closed system (circulation of liquid) it will always start at 0.0 (0 flow; 0 head).
b. In an open system (transport of liquid) the starting point depends on the Hgeo (geometric lift).
For all system characteristics apply that there is a connection between Q (flow) and H (head). If Q is reduced to 1⁄2, H will be reduced to 1⁄4.